Punjabi is spoken by Punjabis in the Punjab state of India & Pakistan. In India Punjabi is written with the Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) alphabet, while in Pakistan it is written with a version of Urdu alphabet also known as Shahmukhi (شاہ مکھی). The Punjabi alphabets, is composed of 10 vowels and 30 consonants. This article focus on the version of Gurmukhi alphabets adopted in India.

Let's start with vowels.

Punjabi (Gurmukhi) Vowels

In Punjabi, vowels are also called Swar (ਸਵਾਰ). Punjabi has 10 vowel accents which are derived from the 3 semi-vowels — ੳ (oorhaa), ਅ (airhaa), and ੲ (eerhee).

Vowels in Punjabi, can also take two forms. They are independent vowel which does not require a consonant and the dependent vowel which is attached to a consonant.

Independent Vowels:

[a]
[aa]
[i]
[ii]
[u]
[uu]
[ee]
[ai]
[oo]
[au]

Dependent Vowels:

[aa]
ਿ
[i]
[ii]
◌ੁ
[u]
◌ੂ
[uu]
◌ੇ
[ee]
◌ੈ
[ai]
◌ੋ
[oo]
◌ੌ
[au]

Punjabi (Gurmukhi) Consonants

In Punjabi, they are called `Akhar (ਆਖ਼ਰ)`. There are 35 consonants in Punjabi script. Each consonant character represents a phonetic sound and alphabetical order of the Gurmukhi alphabet is different from the English alphabet. In addition to these, there are six consonants which has a dot (bindi) at the foot of the consonants.

Consonants:

[ka]
[kha]
[ga]
[gha]
[nga]
[ca]
[cha]
[ja]
[jha]
[nya]
[tta]
[ttha]
[dda]
[ddha]
[nna]
[ta]
[tha]
[da]
[dha]
[na]
[pa]
[pha]
[ba]
[bha]
[ma]
[ya]
[ra]
[la]
[lla]
[va]
[sha]
[sa]
[ha]

Additional consonants:

[khha]
[ghha]
[za]
[rra]
[fa]

Punjabi (Gurmukhi) Numerals

Gurmukhi has its own set of numerals that used to write numbers in the Gurmukhi script, and it behaves exactly as the Latin numerals. While they are extensively used in older texts, in modern contexts, they are being replaced by standard Latin numerals.

[zero]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
.

Features

  • Gurmukhi is developed from the Landa scripts which was standardized and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504-1552).
  • Each character in Gurmukhi has their own line. For instance (ਕ, ਖ, ਗ). In addition, full word in Gurmukhi are grouped by drawing a horizontal line over it. For example, (ਤੁਸੀ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਹੋ?).
  • Gurmukhi is written from left toward the right which is the same as English.
  • Gurmukhi has its own numerals system which is used to write numbers.
  • Each letter in the Gurmukhi alphabet has its own independent and distinct sound. This means, Gurmukhi words are pronounced exactly as they are written.

Punjabi at a glance

Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, ˈpənˈdʒaːbːi), is an official language in the state of Punjab and Pakistan. There are 36 million speakers of Punjabi (Gurmukhi) and additional 3 million as second language in the rest of the world. Below is the quick summary:

Pronunciation: [ˈɡʊɾᵊmʊkʰiː]
Native Name: Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ)
Number of Speakers: 113 million
Parent Systems: Egyptian hieroglyphs
Spoken in: Indian State of Punjab, Pakistan and other countries around the world.
Status: Official language in Indian State of Punjab
Two digit language code (ISO 639-1): pa

A Complete Punjabi Alphabet Chart

Below is a list of complete Punjabi Alphabets Chart.

Independent Vowels:

[a]
[aa]
[i]
[ii]
[u]
[uu]
[ee]
[ai]
[oo]
[au]

Dependent Vowels:

[aa]
ਿ
[i]
[ii]
◌ੁ
[u]
◌ੂ
[uu]
◌ੇ
[ee]
◌ੈ
[ai]
◌ੋ
[oo]
◌ੌ
[au]

Vowel bases:

[iri]
[ura]

Consonants:

[ka]
[kha]
[ga]
[gha]
[nga]
[ca]
[cha]
[ja]
[jha]
[nya]
[tta]
[ttha]
[dda]
[ddha]
[nna]
[ta]
[tha]
[da]
[dha]
[na]
[pa]
[pha]
[ba]
[bha]
[ma]
[ya]
[ra]
[la]
[lla]
[va]
[sha]
[sa]
[ha]

Additional consonants:

[khha]
[ghha]
[za]
[rra]
[fa]

Digit:

[zero]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
.

Special Characters and Various Signs:

.
◌੍
◌ਁ
◌ਂ
◌਼
◌ੑ
◌ੰ
◌ੱ
◌ੵ
𑇇

Type in English, Get In Punjabi. E.g. Typing Tuhada naan ki hai? becomes ਤੁਹਾਡਾ ਨਾਂ ਕਿ ਹੈ?.
Type in English, Get In Hindi. E.g. Typing Aap kasai hai? becomes आप कैसे हैं?.
Hindi alphabet chart with Hindi Vowels, Hindi Consonants & Hindi Numerals
Bengali alphabet chart with Bangla Vowels, Consonants & Numerals
Download High quality Telugu Keyboard layout in 5 different color mode.
Download High quality Malayalam Keyboard layout in 5 different color mode.
Hindi Currency Exchange
Currency Unit Nepali Rs.
U. S Dollar 1 Dollar ($) 127.1669 Rs
UK Pound 1 Pound (£) 154.9797 Rs
Euro 1 Euro 131.1913 Rs
Malaysian Ringgit 1 M. Ringgit 28.6166 Rs
Saudi Riyal 1 S. Riyal 33.8706 Rs
Bahrain Dinar 1 Dinar 336.6359 Rs
Qatari Riyal 1 Q. Riyal 34.9457 Rs