Punjabi is spoken by Punjabis in the Punjab state of India & Pakistan. In India Punjabi is written with the Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) alphabet, while in Pakistan it is written with a version of Urdu alphabet also known as Shahmukhi (شاہ مکھی). The Punjabi alphabets, is composed of 10 vowels and 30 consonants. This article focus on the version of Gurmukhi alphabets adopted in India.
Let's start with vowels.
- Gurmukhi is developed from the Landa scripts which was standardized and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504-1552).
- Each character in Gurmukhi has their own line. For instance (ਕ, ਖ, ਗ). In addition, full word in Gurmukhi are grouped by drawing a horizontal line over it. For example, (ਤੁਸੀ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਹੋ?).
- Gurmukhi is written from left toward the right which is the same as English.
- Gurmukhi has its own numerals system which is used to write numbers.
- Each letter in the Gurmukhi alphabet has its own independent and distinct sound. This means, Gurmukhi words are pronounced exactly as they are written.
|Number of Speakers:
||Indian State of Punjab, Pakistan and other countries around the world.
||Official language in Indian State of Punjab
|Two digit language code (ISO 639-1):