In English language there are vowels and consonants. Likewise, in Hindi also there are vowels and consonants. The difference is that in Hindi all the vowels appear in the beginning and the consonants form another group. As agreed by the Government of India, the standard Hindi alphabet has 11 vowels and 35 consonants. However, traditionally, the Hindi alphabet has 13 vowels and 33 consonants.

Let's start with vowels.

Hindi Vowels

In Hindi they are also know as `Swar (स्वरों)`. There are two types of vowels. The first one is an independent vowel, which is used at the beginning of a syllable. The second one is dependent vowel, which is used when the vowel follows a consonant.

Independent Vowels:

[a]
[aa]
[e]
[i]
[u]
[oo]
[a]
[ae]
[o]
[ao]
अं
[am]
अः
[a:]
[ri]
[rr]

Dependent Vowels:

[aa]
ि
[i]
[ii]
[u]
[uu]
[r]
[rr]
[e]
[e]
[e]
[ai]
[o]
[o]
[o]
[au]

Hindi Consonants

In Hindi, they are called `vyanjan (व्यंजन)`. They are normally considered to have a basic form which consists of a consonant pronounced with an inherent ‘a’ sound. The table below shows 33 consonant letters and their pronunciation.

[k]
[kha]
[g]
[gha]
[nga]
[ca]
[chha]
[ja]
[jha]
[nya]
[ta]
[thh]
[da]
[dh]
[n]
[t]
[tha]
[d]
[dha]
[na]
[p]
[fa]
[b]
[bha]
[ma]
[y]
[r]
[la]
[v]
[sha]
[shha]
[sa]
[ha]

Hindi Numerals

Hindi numerals are the symbols used to write numbers in the Hindi script. They are used to write decimal numbers, instead of the latin numbers.

[zero]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
.

Features

  • Hindi alphabet is written in Devanagari script which in turn has its origin in Brahmi script.
  • Hindi is written from left toward the right which is the same as English.
  • Each character in Hindi has their own line. For instance (क, ख, ग). Also, full words in Hindi are grouped by drawing a horizontal line over it. For example, (हिंदी में लिखें).
  • Hindi has its own numerals system which is used to write numbers.
  • Each letter in the Hindi alphabet has its own independent and distinct sound. This means, Hindi words are pronounced exactly as they are written. Therefore, Hindi is much easier to learn.
  • Like period or full stop, a vertical right stroke is used at the end of a sentence to signal the sentence has come to an end.

Interesting Facts about Hindi Language

  • Hindi is the fourth most spoken language in the world.
  • Hindi Diwas is celebrated on September 14 to mark the adaptation of Hindi as an official language of India on 14 September 1949.
  • Hindi language is spoken by more than 435 million across the world
  • English has borrowed many words from Hindi. For example, bungalow, guru, jungle, thug, yoga and many more.
  • The word `Hindi` is originated from Persian and they used it to refer Indian people
  • Majority of the words in Hindi are borrowed from Arabic and Persian words.
  • Bihar was the first state to have adopted Hindi as its official language instead of Urdu in 1881 during the rule of British.
  • In Hindi, every noun has its own masculine or feminine gender.
  • There are four regional varieties of Hindi. They are: High Hindi, Literary Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Standard Hindi.

Hindi at a glance

Hindi (हिन्दी, Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in India. Hindi is one of two official languages in India, along with the English language. It is written in the Devanagari script, and is spoken by over 498 million people around the world. Below is the quick summary:

Pronunciation: [`ɦɪndiː]
Native Name: Hindi (हिन्दी)
Number of Speakers: 490 million
Language family: Indo-European
First Written: 4th century AD
Writing System: Devanagari Script (देवनागरी)
Spoken in: Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tabago, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
Status: Official language of the Government of India; Official Language of Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand states.
Two digit language code: hi

A Complete Hindi Alphabet Chart

Below is a list of complete Hindi Varnamala Chart

Independent Vowels:

[a]
[aa]
[e]
[i]
[u]
[oo]
[a]
[ae]
[o]
[ao]
अं
[am]
अः
[a:]
[ri]
[rr]

Dependent Vowels:

[aa]
ि
[i]
[ii]
[u]
[uu]
[r]
[rr]
[e]
[e]
[e]
[ai]
[o]
[o]
[o]
[au]

Consonants:

[k]
[kha]
[g]
[gha]
[nga]
[ca]
[chha]
[ja]
[jha]
[nya]
[ta]
[thh]
[da]
[dh]
[n]
[t]
[tha]
[d]
[dha]
[na]
[p]
[fa]
[b]
[bha]
[ma]
[y]
[r]
[la]
[v]
[sha]
[shha]
[sa]
[ha]

Devanagari Digit:

[zero]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
.

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Hindi Currency Exchange
Currency Unit Nepali Rs.
U. S Dollar 1 Dollar ($) 117.0517 Rs
UK Pound 1 Pound (£) 165.1277 Rs
Euro 1 Euro 142.0949 Rs
Malaysian Ringgit 1 M. Ringgit 28.3401 Rs
Saudi Riyal 1 S. Riyal 31.1984 Rs
Bahrain Dinar 1 Dinar 310.5478 Rs
Qatari Riyal 1 Q. Riyal 32.1482 Rs

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