In English language there are vowels and consonants. Likewise, in Sinhala also there are vowels and consonants. The difference is that in Sinhala all the vowels appear in the beginning and the consonants form another group. The standard Sinhala alphabet has 15 vowels and 42 consonants, and a few other symbols.

Let's start with vowels.

Sinhala Vowels

In Sinhalese, there are 18 vowels sound. However, only 16 vowels are required for writing colloquial spoken Sinhala (suddha Sinhala). Out of those 16 vowels, seven of them are short and other seven are long. Remaining two of these vowels are unique to the language and are represented as “æ“ and “æ:”. The vowels in Sinhala can be further broken down as dependent or independent vowels. Below is comprehensive list of vowels:

Independent Vowels:

[a]
[aa]
[ae]
[aae]
[i]
[ii]
[u]
[uu]
[r]
[rr]
[l]
[ll]
[e]
[ee]
[ai]
[o]
[oo]
[au]

Dependent Vowels:

[aa]
[ae]
[aae]
◌ි
[i]
◌ී
[ii]
◌ු
[u]
◌ූ
[uu]
[r]
[e]
[ee]
[ai]
[l]
[rr]
[ll]

Sinhala Consonants

In Sinhalese, there are 42 consonants sound. However, only 41 consonants are required for writing colloquial spoken Sinhala (suddha Sinhala). The rest of the sound are load word from either Sanskrit and Pali and have been added into Sinhala in the course of linguistic change. Those consonants are:

[ka]
[kha]
[ga]
[gha]
[nga]
[nnga]
[ca]
[cha]
[ja]
[jha]
[nya]
[jnya]
[nyja]
[tta]
[ttha]
[dda]
[ddha]
[nna]
[nndda]
[ta]
[tha]
[da]
[dha]
[na]
[nda]
[pa]
[pha]
[ba]
[bha]
[ma]
[mba]
[ya]
[ra]
[la]
[va]
[sha]
[ssa]
[sa]
[ha]
[lla]
[fa]

Sinhala Numerals

Sinhala in the present day uses numerals which were introduced by Portuguese, Dutch and English after 1505 AD.

[zero]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
.

Interesting Facts about Sinhala Language

  • Sinhala is one of the two official languages in Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala is one of the oldest languages of the world. The first historic rock carving believed to be the first use of Sinhala was discovered in 200 BC.
  • There are two coexisting versions of the Sinhala language. One version is used for everyday communication while the other is for a formal version for literature.
  • Sinhala alphabet has been selected among the five most beautiful languages out of hundreds of languages in the world.
  • Sinhala language has stronger connection to Buddhism. One of the oldest inscriptions of Sinhalese is related to Buddhism.
  • Sinhala has lot of influence from other language such as Dravidian and Tamil in addition to Dutch, English, and Portuguese.

Sinhala at a glance

Sinhala (සිංහල, ˈsɪnhələ, ˈsɪŋələ), also spelled Singhalese or Cingalese, is an official and national language of Sri Lanka. It is spoken by over 16 million native speaker and additional 2 million as a secondary language.

Pronunciation: [ˈsiŋɦələ]
Native Name: Sinhala (සිංහල)
Number of Speakers: 20 million
Language family: Indo-Aryan
Ethnicity: Sinhalese People
Writing System: Sinhala Script
Spoken in: Sri Lanka
Status: Official Language in Sri Lanka
Two digit language code (ISO 639-1): si

A Complete Sinhala Alphabet Chart

Below is a list of complete Sinhala Alphabets Chart

Independent Vowels:

[a]
[aa]
[ae]
[aae]
[i]
[ii]
[u]
[uu]
[r]
[rr]
[l]
[ll]
[e]
[ee]
[ai]
[o]
[oo]
[au]

Dependent Vowels:

[aa]
[ae]
[aae]
◌ි
[i]
◌ී
[ii]
◌ු
[u]
◌ූ
[uu]
[r]
[e]
[ee]
[ai]
[l]
[rr]
[ll]

Two Part Dependent Vowels:

[o]
[oo]
[au]

Consonants:

[ka]
[kha]
[ga]
[gha]
[nga]
[nnga]
[ca]
[cha]
[ja]
[jha]
[nya]
[jnya]
[nyja]
[tta]
[ttha]
[dda]
[ddha]
[nna]
[nndda]
[ta]
[tha]
[da]
[dha]
[na]
[nda]
[pa]
[pha]
[ba]
[bha]
[ma]
[mba]
[ya]
[ra]
[la]
[va]
[sha]
[ssa]
[sa]
[ha]
[lla]
[fa]

Digit:

[zero]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
.

Special Characters:

.
◌්
𑿿

Type in English, Get In Malayalam. E.g. Typing halea becomes ഹലോ.
Type in English, Get In Tamil. E.g. Typing Vanakkam becomes வணக்கம்.
Tamil alphabet chart with Tamil Vowels, Consonants & Numerals
Malayalam alphabet chart with Malayalam Vowels, Consonants & Numerals
Download High quality Malayalam Keyboard layout in 5 different color mode.
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